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Fundamental Analysis 基本面分析: Page 7 of 7

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Market Expectations to News and Their Impact on Currencies

There’s no one “All in” or “Bet the Farm” formula for success when it comes to predicting how the market will react to data reports or market events or even why it reacts the way it does.

You can draw on the fact that there’s usually an initial response, which is usually short-lived, but full of action.

Later on comes the second reaction, where forex traders have had some time to reflect on the implications of the news or report on the current market.

It’s at this point when the market decides if the news release went along with or against the existing expectation, and if it reacted accordingly.

Was the outcome of the report expected or not? And what does the initial response of the market tell us about the bigger picture?

Answering those questions gives us place to start interpreting the ensuing price action.

Consensus Market Expectations

Market Expectations to Forex News

A consensus expectation, or just consensus, is the relative agreement on upcoming economic or news forecasts. Economic forecasts are made by various leading economists from banks, financial institutions and other securities related entities.

Your favorite news personality gets into the mix by surveying her in-house economist and collection of financial sound “players” in the market.

All the forecasts get pooled together and averaged out, and it’s these averages that appear on charts and calendars designating the level of expectation for that report or event.

The consensus becomes ground zero; the incoming, or actual data is compared against this baseline number. Incoming data normally gets identified in the following manner:

  • “As expected” – the reported data was close to or at the consensus forecast.
  • “Better-than-expected”- the reported data was better than the consensus forecast.
  • “Worse-than-expected” – the reported data was worse than the consensus forecast.

Whether or not incoming data meets consensus is an important evaluation for determining price action. Just as important is the determination of how much better or worse the actual data is to the consensus forecast. Larger degrees of inaccuracy increase the chance and extent to which the price may change once the report is out.

However, let’s remember that forex traders are smart, and can be ahead of the curve. Well the good ones, anyway.

Many forex traders have already “priced in” consensus expectations into their trading and into the market well before the report is scheduled, let alone released.

As the name implies, pricing in refers to traders having a view on the outcome of an event and placing bets on it before the news comes out.

The more likely a report is to shift the price, the sooner traders will price in consensus expectations. How can you tell if this is the case with the current market?

Well, that’s a tough one.

You can’t always tell, so you have to take it upon yourself to stay on top of what the market commentary is saying and what price action is doing before a report gets released. This will give you an idea as to how much the market has priced in.

A lot can happen before a report is released, so keep your eyes and ears peeled. Market sentiment can improve or get worse just before a release, so be aware that price can react with or against the trend.

There is always the possibility that a data report totally misses expectations, so don’t bet the farm away on the expectations of others. When the miss occurs, you’ll be sure to see price movement occur.

Help yourself out for such an event by anticipating it (and other possible outcomes) to happen.

Play the “what if” game.

Ask yourself, “What if A happens? What if B happens? How will traders react or change their bets?”

You could even be more specific.

What if the report comes in under expectation by half a percent? How many pips down will price move? What would need to happen with this report that could cause a 40 pip drop? Anything?

Come up with your different scenarios and be prepared to react to the market’s reaction. Being proactive in this manner will keep you ahead of the game.

What the Heck? They Revised the Data? Now what?

Too many questions… in that title.

But that’s right, economic data can and will get revised.

That’s just how economic reports roll!

Let’s take the monthly Non-Farm Payroll employment numbers (NFP) as an example. As stated, this report comes out monthly, usually included with it are revisions of the previous month’s numbers.

We’ll assume that the U.S. economy is in a slump and January’s NFP figure decreases by 50,000, which is the number of jobs lost. It’s now February, and NFP is expected to decrease by another 35,000.

But the incoming NFP actually decreases by only 12,000, which is totally unexpected. Also, January’s revised data, which appears in the February report, was revised upwards to show only a 20,000 decrease.

 

NFP table and revisions
As a trader you have to be aware of situations like this when data is revised.

 

Not having known that January data was revised, you might have a negative reaction to an additional 12,000 jobs lost in February. That’s still two months of decreases in employment, which ain’t good.

However, taking into account the upwardly revised NFP figure for January and the better than expected February NFP reading, the market might see the start of a turning point.

The state of employment now looks totally different when you look at incoming data AND last month’s revised data.

Be sure not only to determine if revised data exists, but also note the scale of the revision. Bigger revisions carry more weight when analyzing the current data releases.

Revisions can help to affirm a possibly trend change or no change at all, so be aware of what’s been released.

市场反应

       对于预测市场可能对经济数据所做出的反应,并不存在一个万能的公式,而对于为什么市场会作出如此反应,也没有一个标准的答案。

       你通常会看到,在数据公布后市场会作出最初的反应,这一反应通常会很短暂,但是波动巨大。

       随后,将有第二波反应,此时,市场交易者们已经就数据或新闻报道进行了一段时间的消化。

       也就是在这个时候,市场才会决定,所公布的消息或数据是一如预期或与预期相悖,以及是否应该做出相应的反应。

       报告的结果是和预期一致呢,还是不一致呢?还有,市场最初的反应就整体经济的信息给我们发出的信号又是什么?

       这些问题的回答有助于我们对价格的走势进行解读。
  
共同预期

       共同预期,是市场对即将公布的经济数据或事件的普遍看法。在数据公布之前,会有来自银行、金融机构的众多的经济学家对这些数据进行预测。

       媒体对经济学家在内的众多市场参与人士的预测水平进行平均,最终形成了我们在报告或事件公布之前,所看到的预期值。

       在预期值形成之后,市场参与人士对即将公布的数据便有了一个参考标准,他们会看,最终公布的数据,是符合预期、高于预期,还是不及预期。

          ● 符合预期,即最终数据非常接近预期或和预期一致

          ● 好于预期,即报告最终结果要好于市场预期

          ● 差于预期,即报告最终结果要比之前预期的要差

       即将公布的数据是否和预期一致对外汇交易者来说非常具有参考价值,因为这会确定汇价的短期方向。最终公布的数据和预期水平差距越大,汇价在报告公布后出现巨大波动的可能性就越大。

       不过,我们需要记住的是,外汇交易者都是非常精明的人士,他们往往会提前布局好。

       一些外汇交易者会对市场预期的数据结果进行提前消化,他们会在报告公布之前进行相应的市场操作。

       数据报告对价格走势影响的可能性越大,交易者对市场预期数据的消化得越快。你又怎么能说,当前市场状况就是这个样子呢?

       真的很难说。

       你也知道很难说,所以在数据报告公布之前,你需要站在比市场一般预期更高的高度来看待当前价格走势。这会让你思考,市场对数据的消化程度到底有多少。

       在报告结果最终公布之前,会有很多不确定性因素的出现,所以,你的眼睛和耳朵都必须保持高度的警惕。市场信心在报告公布之前,会出现快速改善或恶化的情况,因此,你必须警惕汇价出现和当前走势出现不一致的情况。

       最终公布的报告结果完全和预期不一致的情况也时有发生,所以,不要完全将赌注压在和大多数人预期一致的一方。当报告数据结果和预期出现明显不一致的时候,你会看到价格可能和绝大多数人之前的判断方向相反。

       你需要做的是问问自己,“如果A情况出现汇价会怎么走?如果B情况出现,汇价会怎么走?其他交易者会做出反应,是否会改变他们之前的判断?”

       你的工作也可以做得更细致。

       你可以问自己,“如果数据结果低于预期的25%汇价会怎么走?价格会下跌多少点?导致汇价下跌40点,报告的结果应该是怎样的?”

       你不见得非得这么问自己,我们要说的是,在报告公布之前,你需要将可能出现的结果都考虑在内,并为市场可能出现的一切结果做好准备。在结果公布之前采取防守态势,将让你始终处于有利地位。

关注修正后的数据

       我们需要注意的是,经济数据会被修正。这也正式经济报告的公布流程。

       让我们以美国月度非农就业数据(NFP)为例说明。正如该指标名称所说明的那样,该报告每个月公布一次,在公布的众多分项指标中,也包括上个月的修正数据。

       我们假设,美国经济正在下滑,且1月份的非农就业人数为下降5万人,马上要公布2月份的非农就业数据了,市场普遍预计,2月份将再次下降3.5万人。

       但是,2月公布的数据显示非农就业人数仅仅下降1.2万人,这要好于预期很多。同时,1月份的数据也做了修正,修正的数据出现在2月份的非农报告中,最终修正为仅仅减少2万人。


       作为一名外汇交易者,你必须对数据修正的情况保持警惕。

       如果你不将1月份修正数据考虑在内,你可能因2月份非农就业人数进一步增加1.2万人而采取负面的行动。

       不过,将1月份数据被上修以及2月份数据好于预期两方面因素考虑在内,这可能正是市场信心出现回升的转折点。

       当你看到最终公布的数据以及1月份修正后的数据后,你对美国就业市场的看法可能会和之前的悲观看法大相径庭。尽管就业人数仍在下降,但是降幅已经在缩减,而这正是就业市场企稳的表现。

       我们不仅需要判断数据是否会做修正,也需要对修正后数据的大小保持警惕。当我们对当前数据进行分析时,修正的幅度越大,它对汇价走势的影响权重则越大。

       修正后的数据能够帮助我们确定可能出现的趋势改变情况,或当前趋势并不会出现改变,因此,对于公布的数据,我们必须保持高度关注。